Intellectual Property in Trikka
Parts are open,
Products can be closed.
The key to Trikka is open parts. Anyone can use and make them for any purpose without conditions or restrictions. This includes commercial use.
But how can this work commercially? Fortunately, Trikka is not the first project to do this. You probably know LEGO® bricks. Did you know that they are open? They are! Their patents expired a long time ago. Anyone can make and sell these bricks, and lots of cool companies do. But LEGO is still the most valuable toy company in the world, and it is growing very fast. Why? Because individual sets built from open multipurpose bricks can still be closed.
PARTS: These bricks are open ↓
PRODUCTS: Sets built with them are closed ↓
Individual sets produced by companies can be closed/commercially monopolised using various exclusive intellectual property rights:
Trademark: LEGO™ is a protected trademark. You can make the same bricks but not market them as “LEGO bricks”. LEGO makes also Star Wars™ sets. LEGO pays for the use of the Star Wars brands. The LEGO™ Star Wars™ X-Wing™ stacks 3 trademarks on to one product.
Design Rights: The unique shape and appearance of a model built with bricks is potentially protectable with design rights. You made a cool spaceship using open bricks? Monopolize it with design rights.
Copyright: The box art, product shots, instructions and product descriptions are protected by copyright. You can sell all the bricks to make a model from LEGO. But you can’t use LEGOs marketing pictures for it.
Patents or Utility Models: If the model would do something new in terms of functionality – for example fly or generate electricity – this could be protected with a patent or utility model. This doesn’t make much sense for LEGO bricks but could make sense for products using Trikka parts when they introduce new functionalities.
all of these work for Trikka products
All intellectual property rights that can close products are always welcome and supported in Trikka! Stack them as you like. At the product level, Trikka is no different from the usual design world. Designers work with open parts in closed products all the time. For example, they use Phillips screws that are open.
How to make your parts open?
When a designer adds a new part to expand the possibilities of Trikka, that new part must be made open. The designer needs to share some information about the part. What information? That depends on whether the designer bought the new part or designed it.
1. Off the shelf part
Many parts that can be used for Trikka already exist – they just need to be discovered and introduced. A common example is nuts and bolts. Designers should opt for simple and common parts that have been on the market for a long time and for which the protection has most likely expired (because they have been on the market for more than 25 years). If you add an off the shelf part write “Off the shelf part – presumably prior art“. It is “presumably” because we don’t expect the designer to check if it really is. We will do that.
2. Newly designed part
The very moment a designer makes a new part it counts as an “own part”. This means that it cannot be safely ruled out that the designer has a property right to it. Even if it is very simple like a disk with a hole in the center. In order to give legal certainty to all those who wish to work with the new component, the designer must place the new component under an open licence – the “Trikka Public Promise” license. By doing so, the designer aims to waive any existing or potential property rights to the part, giving it the same freedoms as parts in the public domain.
Click here to read more about the “Trikka Public Promise” license.
The Trikka Public Promise
The Trikka Public Promise (TPP) is a kind of public declaration. In it the designer declares that he or she will not apply for or claim any intellectual property rights to the part shared under the Trikka Public Promise. The Trikka Public Promise basically serves as a public licence.
What is a public licence? Let’s first understand what a regular licence is.
A regular licence usually involves two parties. Disney owns the “Star Wars” brand. They make a licence agreement with LEGO allowing them to use the Star Wars brand on LEGO toys. In return Disney receives a share of the profits from the revenue generated with these sets. In short, a licence agreement is a contract where I grant another party rights to use my intellectual property under the conditions specified in the licence.
A public licence is a licence agreement with the whole world – with everyone on the planet at once. For this you put the licence next to your published work. In your public license you specify what others can do with the work – e.g. copy it, use it, remix it – and what you expect from them in return – e.g. attribution. Famous examples of public licenses are Open Source Software licenses or the Creative Commons licenses that creators use to enable others to creatively work their work.
The Trikka Public Promise aims to work like that. In it, the designer guarantees to everyone in the world that he or she will never claim intellectual property rights to that work and will never try to limit what others can do with it. Everyone is given the opportunity to work freely with the part without any restrictions or conditions. The Trikka Public Promise is completely unconditional.
Why completely unconditional? Because any condition no matter how small makes it more difficult for others to use the part and creates legal risk. (Yes, even attribution is often difficult. Where to put it? If the licensor is not happy about the way I give attribution will I be sued?) All complications would slow down or prevent the use of Trikka parts at all. They need to be ruled out to make things simple. No conditions but freedom for everyone.
To say it even clearer: The Trikka Public Promise is there to protect the world from the designer of the part. So the world can enjoy the same freedoms with the new part as the designer enjoys with all the parts that are already in the catalogue. This is how Trikka aims to work. As a designer make sure you understand this and feel comfortable with it before you contribute.
Btw. it goes without saying designers should not to the best of their knowledge copy/reinvent innovative parts that are available on the market and potentially closed.
Can be closed. How?
As explained above in the example with LEGO: Products consisting of open parts can of course be closed. And Trikka encourages this.
How to close it? Depending on the product and the situation there are different IP rights that can be considered for this. Whether a designer publishes on Trikka or somewhere else the questions and possibilities remain the same. Information about the different opportunities can be found everywhere on the web. Here is just a quick and incomplete summary to give you a starting point for your own research.
Design Rights: Broadly speaking they protect how something looks. If you have a special shape or colour combination that is also new you can apply for design rights. In Trikka for example you could create a particularly iconic cabinet shape with Trikka parts or a special colour combination for existing Trikka parts and protect it. The Mifactori Backpack is an example for a protected design using Trikka parts.
Patents & Utility Models: They protect what something does or how it works. It is about functionality. To get this protection your invention needs to be new! Where can this play a role for Trikka? Imagine someone makes a technical invention using Trikka parts. For example: One could imagine that the idea to combine the parts 012.1, 033.1 and 014.1 to a “sock dispenser” is protectable with a utility model. Socks from a dispenser on a wall is a new function – maybe.
Trademarks: You can register a trademark easily. There are various ways to connect trademarks to physical objects. For example brand and product names can be registered as trademarks. “LEGO” and “Ninjago” are two registered trademarks of the LEGO Group. Fashion companies often print their brand names and logos on clothes. Why? Because patterns in fashion are hardly protectable. They are basically open from the start. Trademarks however are pretty easy to protect and enforce. So anyone can tailor a CUCCI shirt or jacket without any problem. But only GUCCI is allowed to print “GUCCI” on them. For Trikka this might be for example interesting when it comes to the quality of manufactured parts. Since Trikka parts are open they can be made by different companies. But if for example Vitra produces one of the parts in very good quality Vitra can also put their brand name on the part. From this customers can recognise that it is one of these fantastic parts from “Vitra”. LEGO bricks have the LEGO logo on the top of the studs. Bricks by other manufacturers can’t have the LEGO logo there. This enables a second hand market for “original LEGO” bricks.
Copyrights: Copyrights is mostly for artistic works like text, images or software. They usually cannot be used to protect three-dimensional objects. However, texts and images of all kinds are protected. So in Trikka pictures you take of your work are protected. You receive copyrights automatically. No one will be able to use your work unless you give them individual permission or put a public license – for example the CC0, CC-BY or CC-BY-SA license – next to it.
All these intellectual property rights can be combined with Trikka. Open parts don’t prevent monopoly based businesses. However we also want to state that protection is not a must do. We also welcome full open source hardware products!